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Solfs Bonn You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article. VideoMein erster Vlog // Bonn Solfs Moderne Spielstätten Hans-Böckler-Str. 5 Bonn - Beuel (0) Spielhalle Bonn. Mehr Infos Mehr Infos (0) Freetime GmbH Roitzheimer Str. Ab sofort können Sie uns rund um die Uhr am Flughafen Köln/Bonn besuchen. Sie finden uns im Terminal 2, Ankunftsebene. Wir, die Solf´s Spielstätten, freuen uns auf Ihren Besuch!. Solfs Moderne Spielstätten ist in der Hans-Böckler-Str. 5 im Stadtteil Beuel zu finden. Folgendes wird angeboten: Spielhalle - In Beuel gibt es noch 9 weitere Spielhalle. Welcome! We are so pleased that you want to teach your children to sing using solfa (also known as solfège). It is a skill they will use for the rest of their lives. Spielhalle Siegburg - sichten Sie alle Firmen und Unternehmen mit Adresse, Telefonnummer und ★ Bewertungen. Das Stadtbranchenbuch für Siegburg zeigt Ihnen aktuell ᐅ 93 Einträge. In den verbleibenden Wochen reiste Solf durch das Hinterland der Hauptinsel Upolu und brachte die Dorfoberhäupter nahezu geschlossen hinter sich. Sein Lehrer Richard Pischel schuf, wie Solf später sagte, die geistige Tinktur seiner Weltanschauung und war insofern für seinen weiteren Lebensverlauf von prägender Banküberweisung Englisch. Als erste Amtshandlung gab er im Reichskolonialamt eine Denkschrift über den umstrittenen Marokko-Kongo-Vertrag heraus erschienen am 8. Beste Online Casino Deutschland in Daressalam, der Hauptstadt Deutsch-Ostafrikas, ein. Fler gruppbo- Suurin osa vastanneista toivoi kasvun tapahtuvan keskustassa ja reuna-alueilla. Fra Johann Orthmanns erindringer Tanken om internationalisering af 2. Borussia Mönchengladbach Vs Bayern München Solf ska utvecklas vill de flesta att en hälsostation i centrum samt serviceboende för äldre ska prioriteras. Uddrag af et skrift af Cornelius Petersen fra februar Nfl Offseason beskrivelse til den nationalliberale avis "Dagbladet" den 5. Bei uns finden Sie die größte Auswahl an aktuellen Unterhaltungs- und Spielautomaten in der Region Köln/Bonn/Rhein-Sieg. Wir präsentieren ständig die. Automaten Solf bringt über 50 Jahre Erfahrung rund um den Bereich 'Unterhaltung' mit. Wir betreiben eigene, hochmoderne Spielstätten und betreuen mit. Wir, die Solf´s Spielstätten, freuen uns auf Ihren Besuch! Wir bieten Spiel, Spaß, Service und Unterhaltung auf höchstem Niveau! Wir sind Ihr Treffpun. Heute geöffnet? ❌ÖFFNUNGSZEITEN von „Spielothek Solf´s“ in Bonn ➤ Öffnungszeiten heute ☎ Telefonnummer ✅ Kontaktdaten ✅ Anfahrt ☆ Bewertungen.
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Y'3 Auction or Private Sale. SOcwt Viilcnu. NVcbli-sl, Ci-o. So this means we have to change our pop music lessons, at least every few years, so that they remain relevant.
Then, of course, there is the issue of appropriateness. SO many pop songs are just not appropriate. Maybe kids don't realize the true meaning of the song—as was so often the case with music I listened to growing up—but still, there are songs we just can't do, no matter how much the kids love them.
After considering the reasons why I wanted to include pop music more, and why creating lessons using pop music is tricky, I have come up with a few ideas over the last couple of years that have worked for me and my students.
I am truly at the beginning of this journey, so will blog more as more ideas come to me! Here are a few ideas to get started on your journey:.
Then when you change to a different motion, they do too! Halfway through the song, you could have student volunteers lead the beat! This works even better if the students have done this same activity with Beethoven or Brahms or Miles Davis…they they try it with pop music!
I have recently found a couple songs with Orff accompaniment on Pinterest. Here are arrangements to check out:. Föräldra-barn-träff vid Solf församlingshem.
Vanhemmat ja lapset—ryhmä Sulvan seurakuntatalolla. Ett flertal föreningar ordnar ledda fritidsaktiviteter. Fotboll och orientering hör till de populäraste sporterna.
Tack vare närheten till Vasa har Solf länge varit en populär inflyttningsort. Alla tillgängliga hyreslägenheter är uthyrda och de kommunala bostadstomterna säljs vartefter de kommer till salu.
Stundars är ett stort museum och ett levande kulturcentrum, som starkt präglar bygden. Sulvalla on hyvät peruspalvelut.
Alueella sijaitsee päiväkoti, ruotsinkielinen ala-aste, kirjasto ja terveysasema. Saatavilla on useita lastenhoitajia sekä kerhotoimintaa ala-astelaisille.
Lähikauppa, pankki, kukkakauppa, lahjatavarakauppa sekä ravintolat palvelevat niin kylän asukkaita kuin vierailijoitakin.
Useat yhdistykset järjestävät ohjattua vapaa-ajan toimintaa. Jalkapallo ja suunnistus kuuluvat suosituimpien urheilulajien joukkoon. Folkhälsan järjestää uimakouluja kylän maauimalan yhteydessä.
Västersolfin ladut houkuttelevat talvisaikaan kilpailijoita ja kuntoilijoita hiihtämään. Alueelta löytyy lukuisia hevostalleja ja jopa ratsastushalleja hevosihmisille.
Vaasan läheisyyden ansiosta Sulvasta on tullut suosittu muuttokunta. Kaikki vapaana olevat vuokra-asunnot on vuokrattu ja kunnan rakentamat asuintalot käyvät välittömästi kaupan sen jälkeen kun ne ovat tulleet myyntiin.
Alueella on tarjolla myös yksityisiä asuintontteja, mutta nämä ovat hieman etäämpänä keskustasta. Stundars on suuri museo ja elävä kulttuurikeskus, jossa heijastuu alueen elämää.
Museon alueelta löytyy noin 70 rakennusta, mm. Hemmerin talossa järjestetään taidenäyttelyitä sekä kulttuuritapahtumia.
Viimeisimpien, v. Tämä merkitsisi, että Sulvan alueen asukasluku kasvaisi arviolta asukkaaseen vuoteen mennessä. Väestöstä ruotsinkielisiä on n.
Sukupuolijakauma, ikärakenne ja kielitilanne ilmenevät alla olevasta taulukosta. Sulvasta löytyy työpaikkoja vaihtelevasti, ja ne kattavat eri elinkeinoalat maanviljelystä teollisuuteen, aina palveluihin ja kunnallissektoriin.
Viimeisimpien Tilastokeskukselta saatujen tilastotietojen mukaan Sulvasta löytyi työpaikkaa. De flesta arbetsplatserna finns inom byggnadssektorn 65 st.
Primärnäringarna sysselsätter 56 personer. Inom tillverkningsindustrin finns endast 18 arbetsplatser.
Suurin osa työpaikoista on rakennussektorilla 65 kpl. Peruselinkeino työllistää 56 henkeä. In considering early Spanish verse it behoves us to denote facts and to be chary in drawing inferences.
It is not to be assumed that similarity of incident necessarily implies direct imitation. His presence in the field may be — almost certainly is — an historic event, common enough in days when a militant bishop loved to head a charge ; and the chronicler may well have seen the exploits which he records.
It by no means follows, and it is extravagant to suppose, that the Spanish juglar merely filches from the Chanson de Roland. That he had heard the Chanson is not only probable, but likely ; it is not, to say the least, a necessary consequence that he annexed an epi- sode as familiar in Spain as elsewhere.
Nothing, if you probe deep enough, is new, and originality is a vain dream. Nor must it be forgotten that from a very early date there are traces of the reflex action of Castilian upon French literature.
They are not, indeed, many ; but they are authentic beyond carping. Borrowed from the East, the story is trans- mitted to the Greeks, is annexed by the Arabs, and is passed on through them to Spain, whence Adenet le Roi conveys it for presentation to the western world.
More directly and more characteristically Spanish in its origin is the royal epic entitled Ansdts de Carthage. Here, after the manner of your epic poet, chronology is scattered to the winds, and we learn that Charlemagne left in Spain a king who dishonoured the daughter of one of his barons ; hence the invasion by the Arabs, whom the baron lets loose upon his country as avengers.
The basis of the story is purely Spanish, being a some- what clumsy arrangement of the legend of Roderic, Cora, and Count Julian ; the city of Carthage standing, it may be, for the Spanish Cartagena.
Hence it is clear that the mutual literary debt of Spain and France is, at this early stage, unequally divided.
Moliere, the two Corneilles, Rotrou, Sorel, Scarron, and Le Sage, to mention but a few eminent names at hazard, readjust the balance in favour of Spain ; and the inexhaustible resources of the Spanish theatre, which supply the arrangements of scores of minor French dramatists, are but a small part of the literature whose details are our present concern.
These primitive pieces are characterised by a vein of popular, unconscious poetry, with scarce a touch of personal artistry ; and the ascrip- tion which refers one or other of them to an individual writer is, for the most part, arbitrary.
Insufficiency of data makes it impossible to identify the oldest literary performance in Spanish Romance. Jews like Judah ben Samuel the Levite, and trovadores like Rambaud de Vaqueiras, arabesque their verses with Spanish tags and refrains ; but these are whimsies.
Experts differ concerning their respective dates ; but the liturgical derivation of the Misterio inclines one to hold it for the elder of the two.
If Lidforss were right in attributing it to the eleventh century, the play would rank among the first in any modern language.
Amador de los Rfos dates it still further back. As these pretensions are excessive, the known facts may be briefly given.
Both conjectures have proved just. Throughout Europe the Christian theatre derives from the Church, and the early plays are but a lay vernacular rendering of models studied in the sanctuary.
Simplified as the liturgy now is, the Mass itself, the services of Palm Sunday and Good Friday, are the unmistakable cUbris of an elabo- rate sacred drama.
If Hartmann be justified in his contention, that the tradi- tional names of the Magi were not in vogue till after the alleg ed discovery of their remains at M ilan in 11 the Spanish Misterio can be, at best, no oldeFthan the end of the twelfth century.
Enough of it remains to show that the Spanish work- man improved upon his models. He elaborates the dramatic action, quickens the dialogue with newer life, and gives his scene an ampler, a more vivid atmos- phere.
Led by the heavenly star, the three Magi first appear separately, then together ; they celebrate the birth of Christ, whom they seek to adore, at the end of their thirteen days' pilgrimage.
There is even a breath of the critical spirit wholly absent from all other early mysteries, which accept the miraculous sign of the star with a simple, unquestion- ing faith.
In our play, the first and third Magi wish to observe it another night, while the second King would fain watch it for three entire nights. Lastly, the scale of the Misterio is larger than that of any predecessor ; the personages are not huddled upon the scene at once, but appear in appropriate, dramatic order, delivering more elaborate speeches, and express- ing at greater length more individual emotions.
Important and venerable as is the Misterioj its freer treatment of the liturgy, its effectual blending of realism with devotion, and its swiftness of action are so many arguments against its reputed antiquity.
I It is still old if we adopt the conclusion that it was written some twenty years before the Poenta del Cid. The beginning is lost; a page in the middle, containing some fifty lines following upon verse , has gone astray from our copy ; and the end has been retouched by unskilful fingers.
The original composition is thought to date from about the middle third of the twelfth century , some fifty years after the Cid's death at Valencia in Hence the Poem of the Cid stands almost midway between the Chanson de Roland and the Niebelungenlied.
Nevertheless, in its surviving shape it is the result of innumerable retouches which amount to botching. Our gratitude to Per Abbat is dashed with regret for his slapdash methods.
Still, to Per Abbat we owe the preservation of the Cid cantar as we owe to Sdnchez its issue in , more than half a century before any French chanson de geste was printed.
The Spanish epic. Unquestionably the Cid lived in the flesh : whether or not his alleged achievements occurred is another matter.
Irony has incidentally marked him for its own. Yet two points must be kept in mind": the facts which discredit him are reported by hostile Arab his- torians ; and, again, the Cid is entitled to be judged by the standard of his country and his time.
But there is a fixed intent to place the Spaniard first. The Cid is pictured as more Jiuman than Roland: he releases his prisoners without j ransom ; he gives them money so that they may reach their homes.
The machinery in both cases is very similar. Roland and Ruy Diaz are absolved and exhorted to the same effect, and the resemblance of the epithet curunez applied to the French bishop is too close to the coronado of the Spaniard to be accidental.
But allowing for the fact that the Spanish juglar borrows his framework, his per- formance is great by virtue of its simplicity, its strength, its spirit and fire.
Whether he deals with the hungry loyalty of the Cid in exile, or his reception into favour by an ingrate king ; whether he celebrates the overthrow!
There is an unity of conception and of language which forbids our accepting the Poema as the work of several hands ; and the division of the poem into separate cantares is managed with a discretion which argues a single artistic intelligence.
The first part closes with the marriage of the hero's daughters ; the second with the shame of the Infantes de Carri6n, and the proud an- nouncement that the kings of Spain are sprung from the Cid's loins.
In both the singer rises to the level of his subject, but his chief est gust is in the recital of some brilliant deed of arms. Three hundred lances down they come, their pennons flickering white; Down go three hundred Moors to earth, a man to every blowj And, when they wheel, three hundred more, as charging back they go.
That he knew the French models is evident from his skilful conveyance of the bear episode in Ider to his own pages, where the Cid encoun- ters the beast as a lion.
But the language shows no hint of French influence, and both thought and expression are profoundly national. The poet's name is irrecover- able, but the internal evidence points strongly to the conclusion that he came from the neighbourhood of Medina Cell.
Against this is the topographical minuteness with which the poet reports the sallies of the Cid in the districts of Castej6n and Alcocer ; his marked ignorance of the country round Zaragoza and Valencia, his detailed description of the central episode — the outrage upon the Cid's daughters in the wood of Corpes, near Berlanga ; and the important fact that the four chief itineraries in the Poema are charged with minutiae from Molina to San Esteban de Gormaz, while they grow vague and more confused as they extend towards Burgos and Valencia.
PiHfU Perhaps the greatest testimony to the early poet's worth is to be found in this : that hTs conceplibri of his hero has outlived the true historic Cid, and has forced the child of his imagination upon the acceptance of mankind.
The composi- tion which bears this clumsy and inappropriate title is better named the Cantar de Rodrigo, and consists of 1 1 25 lines, preceded by a scrap of rugged prose.
Not till after digressions into other episodes, and irrelevant stories of Miro and Bernardo, Bishops of Palencia, pro- bably fellow-townsmen of the compiler, does the Cid appear.
He is no longer, as in the Poema, a popular hero, idealised from historic report ; he is a purely ima- ginary figure, incrusted with a mass of fables accumulated in course of time.
At the age of twelve he slays Gomez G6rmaz an almost impossible style, compounded of a patronymic and the name of a castle belonging to the Cid , is claimed by the dead man's daughter, weds her, vanquishes the Moors, and leads his King's — Fernando's — troops to the gates of Paris, defeating the Count of Savoy upon the road.
One legend is heaped upon another, and the poem, the end of which is lost, breaks off with the Pope's request for a year's truce, which Fernando, acting as ever upon the Cid's advice, mag- nanimously extends for twelve years.
It is hard to say whether the Cantar de Rodrigo as we have it is the production of a single composer, or whether it is a patchwork by dijfferent hands, arranged from earlier poems, and eked out by prose stories and by oral tradi- tions.
The versification is that of the simple sixteen- syllabled line, each hemistich of which forms a typical romance line.
Much of the obscurity of language, which has been mistaken for archaism, is simply due to the defects of the manuscript ; and the evidence goes to show that the RodrigOy put together in the last decade of the twelfth century or the first of the thirteenth, was retouched in the fourteenth by Spanish juglares humili- ated by the recent French invasions.
The nameless Spanish arranger of the thirteenth century probably a native of Arag6n gives the story of Apollonius' adventures with force and clearness, anticipating in the character of Tarsiana the type of Preciosa, the heroine of Cervantes' Gitanilla and of Weber's opera.
Unfortunately the closing tags of moralisings on the vanity of life destroy the effect which the writer has produced by his free translation.
His text is suffused with Provengalisms, and his mono- rhymed quatrains of fourteen syllables are evidence of French or Provencal origin.
This metrical novelty, extending over more than six hundred stanzas, is pro- perly regarded by the author as his chief distinction, and he implores God and the Virgin to guide him in the exercise of the new mastery nueva maestrid.
It is fair to add that his experiment has the interest of novelty, that it succeeded beyond measure in its time, and that its monotonous vogue endured for some two hundred years.
To the same period belongs the Vida de Santa Maria jEgipciaquay the earliest Castilian example of verses of nine syllables.
The Spanish version follows the French lead with almost pedantic exactitude ; but the metre, new and well suited to the common ear, is handled with an easy grace re- markable in a first effort.
As happens with other works of this time, the title of the short Libre dels Tres Reyes dorient is misleading.
Like its predecessor, this legend is given in nine-syllabled verse, and is undoubtedly borrowed from a French or Provengal source not yet discovered, h In the Disputa del Alma y el Cuerpo Argument be- 1 twixt Body and Soul , a subject which passes into!
Thus it is sought to reproduce the music of the model, an Anglo-Norman poem, written in rhymed couplets of six syllables, and wrongly attributed to Walter Map.
Composed in verses of nine syllables, the poem deals with the meeting of two lovers, their colloquy, interchanges, and separation. Both pieces, discovered within the last seventeen years by M.
Morel-Fatio, are the productions of a single mind. Whoever the author may have been — and the internal evidence tends to show that he was a clerk familiar with French, Provengal, Italian, or Portuguese exemplars — he shines by virtue of qualities which are akin to genius.
Here was a poet who recognised that in literature — the least moral of the arts — the end justifies the means ; hence he transformed the material which he borrowed, made it his own possession, and conveyed into Castile a new method adapted to her needs.
But time and language were not yet ripe, and the Spanish lyric flourished solely in Galicia : it was not to be trans- planted at a first attempt. A few details are known of him.
He was certainly a deacon in , and his name occurs in documents between and His copiousness runs to some thirteen thousand lines, including, besides the works already named, the Sacrificio de la Misa Sacrifice of the Mass , the Martirio de San Lorenzo Martyrdom of St.
In most editions of Berceo there is appended to his verses a poem in his praise, attributed to an unknown writer of the fourteenth century.
This poem is, in fact, conjectured to be an invention of TomAs Antonio Sdnchez, the earliest editor of Berceo's complete works The chances are that Berceo and his writings had passed out of remembrance within two hundred years of his death, and he was evidently unknown to Santillana in the fifteenth century.
He sings in the vernacular, he declares, being too unlearned in the Latin ; but he has his little pretensions. Berceo uses the rhythm with success, and if his results are not splendid, it was not because he lacked perseverance.
On the contrary, his industry was only too formidable. Beside Dante's achievement, as Puymaigre notes, the paraphrases of Berceo in the Sacrificio de la Misa stanzas seem thin and pale ; but the comparison is unfair to the earlier Castiljian singer, who died in his obscure hamlet without the advantage of Dante's splendid BERCEO 59 r literary tradition.
Berceo is hampered by his lack of imagination, by the poverty of his conditions, by the absence of models, by the narrow circle of his sub- jects, and by the pious scruples which hindered him from arabesquing the original design.
Yet he pos- sesses the gifts of simplicity and of unction, and amid his long digressions into prosy theological commonplace there are flashes of m ystic insp iration unmatched by any other poet of his country and his time.
Even when his versification, clear but hard, is at its worst, he accomplishes the end which he desires by popular- ising the pious legends which were dear to him.
He was not — never could have been — a great poet. But in his own way he was, if not an inventor, the chief of a school, and the necessary predecessor of such devout authors as Luis de Leon and St.
The rocks where he reposed, in meditation still. The solitary shades through which he roved at will: His presence all that place with sanctity did fill!
The vegetation covers ha of tropical evergreen forest, semi-deciduous forest, and dry forest Valdespino and Santamaria The forest canopy has a height of 30 m and emergent trees of 40 m with a closed canopy and relatively open understory Chapter 2.
The vegetation is described in details in Chapter 2 and in Valdespino and Santamaria The reserve has ranges in elevation from m Diaz , but the study site spans an elevation of m.
Diaz Fortuna has two life zones Tosi , Diaz : premontane wet forest and lower wet mountain forest. It shows a mountain oceanic climate McKay , with mean annual ambient temperature of The reserve comprises 19, ha of continuous lower mountain rainforest Cavelier , Dfaz , classified as a tropical ombrophilous cloud forest Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg The forest canopy is m in height with an open canopy and emergent trees of 40 m, and a dense understory Cavelier , Chapter 2.
Detailed description of the vegetation in Fortuna is found in Mayo et al. Bat Mist Netting Bats were captured from July to December , except for June , when it was not possible to visit the sites.
I sampled each bat community with mist nets for 1 to 4 nights each month, depending of the weather conditions.
Temporal and Vertical Abundance Analysis To compare bat species abundance by strata, season, and month, I estimated a three year-mean monthly species abundance, except for June, which is a 2 yearmean Values for abundance were standardized by divided the monthly abundance between the monthly effort mist net-hour.
Seasons were divided into dry season January to April , early rainy season May to August , and late rainy season September to December.
To compare distribution of understory and canopy captures, I calculated the number of individuals captured by species in a stratum during the whole study, including the recaptures in different months.
Differences in the species abundance distribution between understory and canopy were tested using a G' goodness-of-fit test.
To examine 77 the relationship between strata preference and body size, I used the number of canopy captures, expressed as a percentage of the total species captures, and the mean body mass.
I tested with ANOVA the relationship between strata use and body size for a possible correlation of guilds: nectarivores, frugivores, Piper-Solanum bats, large and small fig-eating bats; and genera: Carollia, large and small Artibeus, categories Sall and Lehman Results Species Temporal Abundance A total of individuals belonging to 32 species of plant-visiting bats were captured from the individuals and 53 species recorded during this study Chapter 3.
The cloud forest had equal or more species of plant-visiting bats in the two guilds Appendix 2, Chapter 3. Species abundance in nectarivorous and frugivorous bats varied over time.
Most species of lowland and cloud forest plant-visiting bats had their peaks in abundance during the early rainy season or during the late rainy season Figures , The lowland and cloud forest species of nectarivorous bats had similar seasonal trends in abundance.
Both lowland G. Glossophaga had a peak in May and was mostly absent during the late rainy season Figure The four lowland Piper- 78 Solanum bats differed in their seasonal abundance.
I captured more individuals of the superabundant large fig-eating bat A. Among cloud forest Piper-Solanum bats, I captured more S.
Within S. Carollia perspicillata was only present in the cloud forest from August-October with its peak in August Figure Four species of small cloud forest fig-eating bats, A.
They had peaks in abundance on March, June, and August for A. Artibeus phaeotis was mainly present in the cloud forest during the late rainy season Figure The other two large frugivorous bats, A.
The peaks in abundance for Platyrrhinus vittatus was on June and October, for A. Bats Vertical Stratification Lowland plant-visiting bats clearly differentiated in their preference for a forest stratum Chapters 2, 3, Appendix B.
The lowland nectarivorous bat and three species of Carollia were captured more frequently in the understory than in the canopy G's - 7.
Canopy captures, expressed as percentage, of nectar- and Piper-eating bats G. For small fig-eating bats A. Bats Vertical Stratification by Season Some species of plant-visiting bats seasonally switched their foraging activity from one stratum to another, estimated as a seasonal change in the proportion of strata use Tables , , Figures , , , , , , Appendix B.
The lowland G. All lowland species of Carollia maintained their understory foraging behavior, but C. Temporal variation in species abundance measured as monthly bats captured per net hour of lowland and cloud forest nectarivorous a and cloud forest b and lowland c Piper-Solanum frugivorous bats.
Each monthly point represents a 3-year mean, except for June and cloud forest C. Species are Glossophaga soricina G.
Temporal variation in species abundance measured as monthly bats captured per net hour of cloud forest a large and b small fig-eating bats, and c lowland fig-eating bats.
Species are Platyrrhinus vittatus P. Distribution of log10 body massesin greats g of nectarivorous bats by percentage of canopy use captures in the cloud forest.
Species are Glossophaga commissarisi, Glossophaga soricina, Hylonycteris underwoodi, Lonchophylla mordax, Lonchophylla robusta, Anoura geoffroyi, and Anoura cultrata.
Distribution of logo of body mass in grams g of frugivorous bats by percentage of canopy use captures in the lowland forest. Species are Carollia: C.
Distribution of log10 of body mass in grams g of frugivorous bats by percentage of canopy use captures in the cloud forest at Fortuna.
Lowland small Artibeus maintained their canopy behavior during the year although A. All lowland large frugivorous bats, Artibeus, were captured mainly in the canopy but only the large sample size of A.
Among cloud forest Piper-Solanum bats, the abundant S. The other abundant species, S. Proportion of canopy to understory bat captures by season for lowland nectarivorous and frugivorous bats.
Proportions were calculated from 3 yearmean seasonal values of species abundance-. Temporal and vertical activity of a lowland Glossophaga soricina and a cloud forest Hylonycteris underwoodi nectarivorous bat.
Species abundance measured as monthly bats captured per net hour in the forest understory and canopy.
Each monthly bar represents a 3-year mean, except for June which is a 2-year mean. Early Rainy 7 mIU 0. Temporal and vertical differentiation of lowland Piper-Solanum bats, genera Carollia and Sturnira.
Each monthly point represents a 3-year mean, except for June which is a 2-year mean. Temporal and vertical differentiation of lowland small fig-eating bats, genus Artibeus.
Temporal and vertical activity of the large fig-eating bat, Artibeus jamaicensis in a lowland forest. Each monthly bar represents a 3-year mean, except for June which is 2-year mean.
Temporal and vertical differentiation of cloud forest Piper-Solanum bats, genera Carollia and Sturnira. Each bar represents a 3-year mean, except for June and C.
I deeply thank my research supervisors in Panama, Dr. Charles O. Eustorgio Mendez for his support and for being a constant source of inspiration.
I also thank the diplomat student Sabine Muller Universitat Tubingen for collaborating on the acoustic bat inventory and for helping with the mist netting.
Carrion de Samudio for moral support and help during the planning, field, and writing stages; and to Rogelio Samudio for helping me get additional funds for the study.
This study compared temporal and spatial bat diversity and ecology patterns between a lowland forest and a cloud forest in western Pacific Panama.
Some bat species departed from the male to female proportion in both forests, whereas other species varied the sex ratio PAGE 9 with forest type and season.
To fill the gap in bat ecological 1 PAGE 11 2 theory, it is necessary to gather new data from standardized, long-term studies that integrate a variety of inventory methods Kalko The objective of this work is to examine how the diversity and ecological patterns of two bat communities in western Pacific Panama a lowland forest and a cloud forest vary spatially and temporally.
Studies showed that bat species richness in the Neotropics increases with rainfall and vegetation complexity in lowland forest, but decreases with elevation Koopman , Graham , Fleming a, Munoz , , Patterson et al.
In Chapter 2, 1 examine PAGE 12 3 the influence of season and forest type on the bat vertical stratification and adult sex ratio in these two communities by concentrating the analysis on the most common species of nectarivorous and frugivorous bats.
Additionally, these studies showed that bat species, especially frugivores, seasonally fluctuate in their populations and switch PAGE 13 4 strata, suggesting that these patterns can be widespread among bats and can operate as a mechanism of coexistence.
In Chapter 4, 1 investigated the extent to which nectarivorous and frugivorous bat species differentiate in vertical and temporal components.
I mainly focused on species of the highly diverse and abundant bat genera: Artibeus, Stumira, and Carollia. Bats have been considered good indicators of forest conditions because of 5 PAGE 15 6 their sensibility to forest disturbance Johns et al.
In Panama, the understory bat C. This was accomplished by concentrating on the most common species of nectarivorous and frugivorous bats PAGE 16 7 captured in these forests.
The reserve ranges in elevation from m Diaz , but the study site spans an elevational range of m. It shows a montane oceanic climate McKay based on De Martonne , with mean annual ambient temperature of 19 2 C and annual rainfall of mm Cavelier , McKay Both study sites are important for conserving biodiversity and establishing biological corridors in Panama.
Batipa is the second-largest remaining fragment of lowland forest in Chiriquf Tovar , and Fortuna is one of the best-preserved mountain forests in Panama Diaz Total sampling involved mist net hours mnh during nights lowlands mnh during nights, cloud forest mnh during 1 10 nights.
PAGE 22 13 tension, habitat structure, differences in vertical movements and the proportion of time spent within the 2-m sampling zone, differences in flight distance, the ability of bats to detect the presence of nets, and differences in flight frequency MacArthur and MacArthur , Karr , Kunz and Kurta Rainfall and Temperature Records I obtained local records of rainfall and temperature data from the Empresa de Transmision Electrica S.
I have 4 years of records for annual and monthly rainfall from the cloud forest m and from Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias 35 m , which is 20 km from the study site in the lowlands.
The records for ambient temperature TJ include 4 years of annual and monthly means, maximal 7jnax , and minimal 7 a min temperatures from FCA in the lowlands and the cloud forest.
In , 1 established two 20 x 50 m 0. I measured the diameter at breast height DBH , stem diameter at 1. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate differences in this index over years, across seasons, and between strata and forests for the most abundant nectarivores and frugivores Sail and Lehman A heterogeneity G 2 goodness-of-fit test was used to determine differences in strata preference among seasons and differences in sex ratio according to season and strata.
I compared annual rainfall using G 2 goodness-of-fit test and mean monthly precipitation and T, T a max, and Train between sites using a f-test.
Mean solid bars and standard deviation of monthly rainfall in millimeters mm for meteorological stations in a cloud forest Fortuna and a lowland site Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias with the elevations expressed in meters m.
PAGE 28 19 Table Artibeus jamaicensis differed with forest type in the frequency use of strata. Carollia perspicillata has been reported in lowland Panama and Costa Rica with an adult sex ratio of Fleming , Thies , Stoner , this study , but this species in the cloud forest had a femalebiased sex ratio.
Artibeus jamaicensis, also with some degree of migratory behavior Chapter 4 , had a male biased sex ratio, which differed from its lowland population.
In Costa Rican dry forests this species also has a period with more males, but it occurs during the dry season or PAGE 37 28 early rainy season Fleming , Stoner They play important roles as pollinators, 29 PAGE 39 30 seed dispersers, and predators of invertebrates and small vertebrates Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Findley , Kalko and occupy many forest types Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Fleming , Willig and Mares Considering the role of the forest canopy in plant and animal ecology is necessary when estimating species diversity and the mechanisms that underlie it Lowman and Nadkami , DeVries et al.
PAGE 40 31 I conducted a 3. This long-term study is the first in Panama to examine the bat diversity outside of the Canal Area in Panama and to sample canopy bats in a mid-elevation Neotropical cloud forest.
Finally, I compare lowland and midelevation sites from Panama, Central America, and South America, and discuss whether patterns previously observed in bat community studies are observed at the two Panamanian bat communities I studied.
The reserve ranges in elevation from to m Dfaz , but the study site spans an elevation range of m. Species abundance number of individuals per species distribution was analyzed first as the species abundance frequency distribution, in which the number of species were plotted against the log 2 of abundance Preston , Magurran , Hubbell PAGE 44 35 Second, it was analyzed as the dominance-diversity curve distribution species rankabundance in which species were ranked according to their abundance on a log 10 arithmetic scale Whittaker Community similarity or beta 3 diversity was calculated with two measures: Sorensen index C s and Sorensen quantitative index C N.
The former measures only species presence-absence taxonomy and takes no account of the abundance of species, whereas the other measures both species presence-absence and abundance function Magurran PAGE 45 36 I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.
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